It appears when a civilian Peleng vessel drops it near a scientific base, while it remains in close proximity to the science station. If the ranger tries talking to the civilian ship, the ship claims there's no time to chat and not to touch the probe.
If the probe is retrieved by the ranger, the civilian ship will demand its return. The ship will attack if this is not done.
When the civilian ship is destroyed, the scientific base contacts you, saying that it is an explosive. You will need to drop the probe away from the scientific base, and destroy it. Once this is done, you will receive a standard reward, and there appears to be no reputation hit from nearby Peleng controlled planets.